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The Differences and Similarities between Alfavit Azerbaycan and Other Turkic Alphabets

Alfavit Azerbaycan: The Alphabet of Azerbaijan

Alfavit Azerbaycan, or the Azerbaijani alphabet, is the writing system used for the Azerbaijani language, which is spoken by about 32 million people in Azerbaijan, Iran, Georgia, Russia, Turkey, and other countries. The Azerbaijani alphabet has three versions: Perso-Arabic, Latin, and Cyrillic. The current official alphabet in Azerbaijan is based on the Latin script, which was adopted in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this article, we will explore the history, features, comparison, benefits, and challenges of alfavit azerbaycan.

alfavit azerbaycan

History of Alfavit Azerbaycan

The history of alfavit azerbaycan reflects the complex and diverse influences that have shaped the Azerbaijani culture and identity. Before the 20th century, Azerbaijani was written with a modified version of the Arabic script, which was introduced to the region by Arab invaders in the 7th century. The Arabic script was not well suited for representing the sounds and grammar of Azerbaijani, and various reforms were proposed by Azerbaijani intellectuals to create a more efficient writing system. One of the earliest attempts was made by Mirza Fatali Akhundov in the mid-19th century, who designed a Latin-based alphabet for Azerbaijani. However, his project did not gain much support from the authorities or the public.

In 1929, as part of a wider campaign to modernize and secularize the Turkic languages in the Soviet Union, a new Latin alphabet was created for Azerbaijani by a committee in Baku. The new alphabet aimed to separate the Azerbaijanis in the USSR from those in Iran, who continued to use the Arabic script. The Latin alphabet also facilitated linguistic and cultural ties with Turkey, which had adopted a similar alphabet in 1928. The Latin alphabet was used in Azerbaijan until 1939, when Joseph Stalin ordered that all Turkic languages switch to the Cyrillic script. This decision was motivated by political and ideological reasons, such as weakening the influence of Turkey and strengthening the integration of Azerbaijan into the Soviet system.

The Cyrillic alphabet remained in use in Azerbaijan until 1991, when Azerbaijan regained its independence from the Soviet Union. One of the first acts of the new parliament was to restore the Latin alphabet as the official writing system for Azerbaijani. The new Latin alphabet was slightly different from the one used in 1929, as it added some letters and diacritics to better reflect the phonology of Azerbaijani. The transition to the Latin alphabet was not easy or smooth, as it required changing many signs, documents, books, and media outlets. It also faced some resistance from some segments of society who preferred to keep the Cyrillic script or return to the Arabic script.

Features of Alfavit Azerbaycan

The current Latin alphabet for Azerbaijani consists of 32 letters: 23 consonants and 9 vowels. The letters are:


a b c ç d e ə f g ğ h x ı i j k q l m n o ö p r s ş t u ü v y z

jungle, Q is pronounced like [ɡ] as in go, and X is pronounced like [χ] as in loch. The letter Ə is pronounced like [æ] as in cat, and the letter İ is pronounced like [i] as in see. The letters Ç, Ğ, Ö, Ş, Ü have the same sounds as in Turkish: Ç is pronounced like [tʃ] as in cheese, Ğ is a soft consonant that lengthens the preceding vowel, Ö is pronounced like [ø] as in fur, Ş is pronounced like [ʃ] as in shoe, and Ü is pronounced like [y] as in cute. The letters F, H, J, V, W are not native to Azerbaijani and are only used for loanwords from other languages.

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The Azerbaijani alphabet follows the principle of one letter for one sound, which means that each letter has a fixed pronunciation and each sound has a unique representation. This makes the spelling and reading of Azerbaijani relatively easy and consistent. However, there are some exceptions and variations in the pronunciation of some letters depending on the position and context. For example, the letter G can be pronounced like [ɡ] as in go or like [ɣ] as in Spanish amigo. The letter K can be pronounced like [k] as in key or like [q] as in Arabic qalam. The letter L can be pronounced like [l] as in love or like [ɫ] as in ball. The letter R can be pronounced like [r] as in red or like [ɾ] as in Spanish pero.

Comparison of Alfavit Azerbaycan with Other Alphabets

The Azerbaijani alphabet is closely related to the Turkish alphabet, as both languages belong to the Turkic language family and share many words and grammatical features. The Turkish alphabet also uses the Latin script and has 29 letters: 21 consonants and 8 vowels. The main difference between the two alphabets is that the Turkish alphabet does not have the letters Ə, X, Q, which are specific to Azerbaijani. Instead, it has the letters Ğ, I, İ, which are specific to Turkish. The Turkish alphabet also uses a different order for some letters: C comes before Ç, O comes before Ö, U comes before Ü.

The Azerbaijani alphabet is also related to the Persian alphabet, as both languages have been influenced by Persian culture and literature for centuries. The Persian alphabet uses a modified version of the Arabic script and has 32 letters: 23 consonants and 9 vowels. The main difference between the two alphabets is that the Persian alphabet is written from right to left and uses a cursive style that connects most letters within a word. The Persian alphabet also has some additional letters and diacritics that are not found in the Arabic script.

Benefits of Alfavit Azerbaycan

The adoption of the Latin alphabet for Azerbaijani has brought many benefits to the country and its people. Some of these benefits are:

  • It has increased the literacy rate and the access to education, as the Latin script is easier to learn and teach than the Arabic or Cyrillic scripts.

  • It has enhanced the communication and cooperation with other countries, especially Turkey and the European Union, as the Latin script is widely used and recognized in the world.

  • It has promoted the cultural and linguistic diversity and identity of Azerbaijan, as the Latin script reflects the unique sounds and features of Azerbaijani.

  • It has fostered the development and innovation of science, technology, and media, as the Latin script allows for more flexibility and compatibility with modern devices and platforms.

Challenges of Alfavit Azerbaycan